Olfactory function correlated significantly with left-sided depth of the olfactory sulcus (r 44 =0.33, P=0.03); no such correlation was seen for the right side. In addition, olfactory sulcus depth was found to be significantly deeper on the right compared to the left side (t=5.61, P<0.001). The present results suggest that there is small, but significant relation between morphological brain structures and measures of olfactory function Forty-four healthy, male volunteers (age range 22-45 years, mean age 28.3 years) were included in this study. Olfactory function was measured for phenyl ethyl alcohol odor thresholds, odor discrimination, and odor identification. Magnetic resonance imaging of the olfactory sulcus was performed immediately following olfactometry Olfactory deficit is known to occur frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to explore olfactory deficit in PD and to investigate its possible correlation with the disease severity or the depth of the olfactory sulcus. Fifty-nine PD patients and 25 normal controls were examined by t The medial orbital gyrus presents a well-marked antero-posterior sulcus, the olfactory sulcus. Its depth is an indicator of congenital anosmia. Additional image
Olfactory function correlated significantly with left-sided depth of the olfactory sulcus (r(44)=0.33, P=0.03); no such correlation was seen for the right side Olfactory sulcus. The olfactory sulcus is located on the inferior (orbital) surface of the frontal lobe and runs in an anteroposterior direction. The gyrus rectus lies medial to the olfactory sulcus, whilst the orbital gyri lie lateral to it. The olfactory tract runs within the olfactory sulcus 1-3 Association of Olfactory Bulb Volume and Olfactory Sulcus Depth with Olfactory Function in Patients with Parkinson Disease J. Wang H. You J.-F. Liu D.-F. Ni Z.-X. Zhang J. Guan BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Olfactory dysfunction is commonly associated with IPD. We here report the association of OB volume and OS depth with olfactory function in patients with PD . Across all subjects, but not within each group, the olfactory sulcus depth was significantly related to better identification of odors The olfactory sulcus is linked to the development of the olfactory system since it receives projections from the olfactory bulb and tract. Hummel et al. showed that the depth of the olfactory sulcus in the plane of the posterior tangent through the eyeball (PPTE) was related to the overall olfactory function in healthy subjects (Hummel et al. 2003)
The depth of the olfactory sulcus is a measure that is directly linked to embryonic development of both the olfactory system and the cerebral cortex. This sulcus, which directly overlays the olfactory tracts, is among the earliest to develop and is identifiable in the fetal forebrain around gestational week 16 ( Chi et al., 1977 ) We here report the association of OB volume and OS depth with olfactory function in patients with PD. Materials and methods: Morphometric analyses by using MR imaging and the Japanese T&T olfactometer threshold test were used to evaluate olfactory structure and function in 29 patients with PD and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls Olfactory deficits are common in patients with IPD, occurring at about the same frequency as resting tremor. 1 -3 Between 70% and 90% of patients with PD have olfactory deficits independent of disease severity and duration. 4,5 Olfactory dysfunction is thus the second most common feature of this disorder, following rigidity and akinesia. 6 The high prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in patients with IPD suggests that IPD may actually be an olfactory disease. 5,6 Recent neuropathologic. Olfactory function correlated significantly with left-sided depth of the olfactory sulcus (r(44)=0.33, P=0.03); no such correlation was seen for the right side. In addition, olfactory sulcus depth was found to be significantly deeper on the right compared to the left side (t=5.61, P0.001) Olfactory sulcus depth study revealed no statistical difference between IOL patients and controls. Orthonasal thresholds T were correlated positively with total OB volume in both IOL and controls (r = 0.48: P < 0.05 and r = 0.43: P < 0.05), respectively. Other parameters of olfactory function like discrimination D, identification I, and retronasal scores were not correlated with total OB volume in IOL patients and controls
The olfactory function declines as the age grows and seems to be a prodromal indication of cognitive impairment in progressive neurodegenerative diseases... The functions of the orbitofrontal cortex Edmund T. Rolls* secondary and tertiary olfactory cortical areas, in which information about the identity and also about the reward value of odours is ﬁelds (area 8) in the anterior bank of the arcuate sulcus. The functions of the orbitofrontal cortex are consid-ered here. This analysis.
Olfactory sulcus depth of the right side was lower in the female patients with OSA compared to the male patients with OSA. Salihoğlu et al 21 investigated the effects of OSA on the olfactory functions (odor threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification tests). They also measured the OB volumes Kim JiY, Lee WY, Chung EJ, et al. Analysis of olfactory function and the depth of olfactory sulcus in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2007; 22(11): 1563-1566. CrossRef PubMe
Another parameter used in evaluating olfactory functions is the depth of the olfactory sulcus. Some diseases such as major depression, anxiety disorder, Behçet's disease, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease have been shown to reduce the depth of the olfactory sulcus and cause a decrease in the sense of smell [1, 5, 11] Note that when visual and olfactory cues of sickness were combined, significant functional connectivity was shown between a set of brain regions (inferior parietal sulcus and temporal cortices, inferior parietal lobe, cingulate cortices, precuneus, primary visual cortex, and fusiform cortex), indicating the existence of an amodal neural network.
olfactory function and the depth of the olfactory sulcus to the left-sided OS and (3) there was no overlap in OS (OS) in patients with isolated anosmia since birth or early depth in PPTE in patients with olfactory bulbs/tracts and childhood when the olfactory bulb was measured in the those without olfactory bulbs/tracts. Based on these data i The olfactory bulb is located at the base of the forebrain in olfactory sulcus. It is continuous posteriorly with the olfactory tract. It surrounded medially by the gyrus rectus and laterally by the orbital gyri. Structure. Olfactory bulb is a bulb-shaped nervous tissue made up of multiple layers of cells. Histologically, it is divided into. The tract passes posteriorly on the underside of the medial frontal lobe in a sulcus known as the olfactory groove. Olfactory striae. Posterior and anterior to the optic chiasm, the olfactory tract on both sides divides into medial and lateral olfactory striae The inferior surface of the frontal lobe : Olfactory sulcus, contains olfactory bulb and tract.; Medial to the olfactory sulcus is the gyrus rectus (1); Lateral to the olfactory sulcus is the orbital gyrus (2) ; The olfactory tract posteriorly divides into medial and lateral olfactory striae. Caudal to this division is the olfactory trigone and anterior perforated substance The olfactory system provides numerous functions to humans, influencing ingestive behavior, awareness of environmental hazards and social communication. Approximately ⅕ of the general population exhibit an impaired sense of smell. However, in contrast to the many affected, only few patients complain of their impairment. So how important is it for humans to have an intact sense of smell
. Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Italy, impaired smell/taste was more frequently seen in younger patients and in women. 6 Unpublished data and anecdotal reports support resolution of olfactory symptoms within approximately 2 weeks The olfactory bulb, a forebrain structure, is located on the ventral surface of the frontal lobe in the olfactory sulcus and is attached to the rest of the brain by the olfactory tract. The olfactory tract is an inclusive structure that contains fibers of the lateral olfactory tract , cells of the anterior olfactory nucleus , and fibers of the. Cuneus: gyri between calcarine sulcus and parieto-occipital sulcus Precuneus: medial view, between paracentral lobule and cuneus. Olfactory bulbs: Sit in olfactory tracts (parallel on inferior side of the frontal lobe Next, reorient yourself to the parieto-occipital sulcus (see Figure 1.13) and find the calcarine sulcus, which intersects the parieto-occipital sulcus at nearly a right angle and extends typically to the occipital pole of the hemisphere (search this term in the Sylvius4 Online Visual Glossary and click on the loudspeaker icon to hear the proper. The olfactory sulcus appears during fetal development at around 16 weeks of gestation (Chi et al., 1977), and its depth has been related to olfactory function in healthy subjects (Hummel et al., 2003). For psychiatric disorders, an abnormally shallow olfactory sulcus has been reported in schizophrenia (Turetsky et al., 2009a
The Correlation between Olfactory Function, Olfactory Bulb Volume, and Olfactory Sulcus Depth in Healthy Subject Olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sulcus depth in patients with Behçet's disease - Volume 132 Issue 1 the macaque: a shallow olfactory sulcus (which lies immediately above the olfactory tract), a longer and deeper medial orbital sulcus, and a shorter and somewhat more variable lateral orbital sulcus (Fig. 2A). The gyrus rectus lies medial to the olfactory sulcus, the medial orbital gyrus occupies the area between the olfactory and medial orbita A challenge for the future is to quantitatively establish the olfactory function of an individual with trisomy 21 at all ages with more detailed measurements, for example, olfactory bulb, olfactory sulcus, grey matter, and white matter
sulcus) mark nearly the entire surface of the cerebral hemispheres. Deeper groves, called fissures, separate large regions of the brain. Much of the cerebrum is involved in the processing of somatic sensory and motor information as well as all conscious thoughts and intellectual functions Similarly, a lack of olfactory afferent input decreases the volume of the olfactory bulb 19,20 and the adjacent olfactory sulcus, positioned between the gyrus rectus and medial orbitofrontal gyrus 21
The olfactory tract is a bundle of afferent nerve fibres that run under and adjacent to the olfactory sulcus in the frontal lobe. When this posteriorly travelling tract reaches the anterior perforated substance, it divides into the medial and lateral striae. The medial stria conveys axons to the subcallosal gyrus Olfactory sulcus measurement The olfactory sulcus of the frontal lobe is located above the OB and the olfactory tract. The depth of the OS seems to be dependent on the presence of the OB. The depth of the OS is calcu-lated using a standardised method. The observer browses the coronal T2-weighted sections from anteri-or to posterior and selects.
Olfactory bulb volume and depth of olfactory sulcus in patients with idiopathic olfactory loss Olfactory bulb volume and depth of olfactory sulcus in patients with idiopathic olfactory loss Rombaux, Ph.; Potier, H.; Markessis, E.; Duprez, T.; Hummel, T. 2010-10-01 00:00:00 Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol (2010) 267:1551-1556 DOI 10.1007/s00405-010-1230-2 RHINOLOGY Olfactory bulb volume and depth. Image: The primary olfactory cortex and olfactory association cortex (orange) function to make us consciously aware of smells, as well as to analyze, process, and recognize smells. Insular Cortex We have now covered the sense of touch (parietal lobe), vision (occipital lobe), auditory (temporal lobe), and smell (temporal lobe) olfactory groove: [TA] the sagittal sulcus on the inferior or orbital surface of each frontal lobe of the cerebrum, demarcating the straight gyrus from the orbital gyri, and covered on the orbital surface by the olfactory bulb and tract. Synonym(s): sulcus olfactorius [TA], olfactory groov
Only primates have temporal lobes, which are largest in man, accommodating 17% of the cerebral cortex and including areas with auditory, olfactory, vestibular, visual and linguistic functions. The hippocampal formation, on the medial side of the lobe, includes the parahippocampal gyrus, subiculum, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and associated white matter, notably the fimbria, whose fibres. Background: Structural and functional asymmetry is frequent in biological systems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a relation between handedness and the depth of the olfactory sulcus (OS) and reinvestigate whether there is a lateralization of OS depth. Methods: Forty-two healthy volunteers (mean age 24.1 years; 23 right-handed and 19 left-handed) participated Migraine incidence has been reported to be 10.5-16.5% in Europe and the US, 2-3% in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and two studies in Turkey have stated the high rate of 16.4%. Migraine is twice as common in females than males and peak age is Brain Structure & Function. Structure Function Central sulcus Separates frontal from parietal lobe Cerebellum Regulation and coordination of movement, posture, balance, rhythm Cerebral Cortex Frontal lobe Planning, reasoning, impulse control, personality Occipital lobe Vision Parietal lobe Orientation of body, perception of stimuli (e.g. touch, pain, temperature) Temporal lobe Hearing, speech.
The first research reported olfactory disorder in MS in 1971. 19 The available evidence support that olfactory disturbance is frequent in MS, although some studies opposed this claim. 2,20 The structure pathology study revealed that the olfactory bulb and olfactory sulcus significantly atrophied in patients with MS. 5,21 The pathological data. The aim of this study was to investigate the olfactory bulb (OB) and sulcus (OS) in a large group of patients who have been well-characterized in terms of olfactory function, with a specific focus on the comparison between patients with olfactory loss due to chronic rhinosinusitis, head trauma, or acute infections
Measures of neural processing can be obtained using non-invasive methods from all areas of the human brain but one, the olfactory bulb (OB). The OB is the critical first central processing stage. Mueller A, Abolmaali ND, Hakini AR et al (2005) Olfactory bulb volume in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease—a pilot study. J Neural Transm 112:1363-1370; Kim JY, Lee WY, Chung EJ, Dhong HJ (2007) Analysis of olfactory function and the depth of olfactory sulcus in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 22(11):1563-156 Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate the olfactory bulb (OB) and sulcus (OS) in a large group of patients who have been well-characterized in terms of olfactory function, with a specific focus on the comparison between patients with olfactory loss due to chronic rhinosinusitis, head trauma, or acute infections Hummel, Thomas Urbig, Antje Huart, Caroline [UCL] Duprez, Thierry [UCL] Rombaux, Philippe [UCL]. The aim of this study was to investigate the olfactory bulb (OB) and sulcus (OS) in a large group of patients who have been well-characterized in terms of olfactory function, with a specific focus on the comparison between patients with olfactory loss due to chronic rhinosinusitis, head trauma, or. The gyrus rectus is bounded medially by the interhemispheric fissure and wraps around to the inferomedial surface of the frontal lobe, where it is separated from the rostral gyrus by the inferior rostral sulcus 5. Inferolaterally it is separated from the medial orbital gyrus by the olfactory sulcus. Anteriorly, gyrus rectus is continuous with.
The Olfactory Cortex is the portion of the cerebral cortex concerned with the sense of smell. It is part of the Cerebrum. It is a structurally distinct cortical region on the ventral surface of the forebrain, composed of several areas. It includes the piriform lobe and the hippocampal formation. Image: Red Olfactory Cortex Whole-brain analyses revealed a significant positive correlation of gray matter volume and olfactory function scores in the right orbital sulcus, suggesting an essential role of regional gray matter volume in the right OFC and olfactory bulb volume for olfactory performance in healthy individuals (Seubert et al., 2013). Furthermore, OFC is. Olfactory system, the bodily structures that serve the sense of smell. The system consists of the nose and the nasal cavities, which in their upper parts support the olfactory mucous membrane for the perception of smell and in their lower parts act as respiratory passages. Sagittal view of the human nasal cavity
Both olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sulcus depth have been shown to be of clinical relevance in various pathological conditions. 51-53 CRS patients exhibit a reduction in OB volume. 54, 55 Importantly, a marked increase of OB volume was observed after treatment, concomitant with an increase in olfactory function. 56-58 In keeping with this. We searched PubMed® publications having the keyword olfactory in their title or abstract, plus one of seven other keywords: groove, fossa, recess, cleft, vestibule, sulcus and cistern. We reviewed all abstracts for accuracy of these terms relative to accepted norms or customary definitions Gyri and Sulci Functions . Brain gyri and sulci serve two very important functions: They increase the surface area of the cerebral cortex and they form brain divisions.Increasing the surface area of the brain allows more neurons to be packed into the cortex so that it can process more information. Gyri and sulci form brain divisions by creating boundaries between the lobes of the brain and.
Even the ever-thorough Talley and O'Connor remark that the first cranial nerve is not tested routinely. This is even more correct in the ICU setting. A brief informal survey of senior ICU staff revealed none who have ever performed olfactory nerve testing in the course of their practice. If one were to attempt this in the CICM fellowship exam, one is likely to attract the giggling derision. For OB volume and olfactory sulcus depth, images were acquired using a T2-weighted TSE sequence in the coronal plane, covering the anterior and middle segments. Sequence parameters: 30 slices, voxel size: 400 × 400 μm, slice thickness: 1.6 mm, no gap, TE = 85 ms, TR = 5000 ms, flip angle = 120° Recent studies have reported olfactory dysfunction in MS patients ranging from 11 to 41% [ 7 - 10] and gustatory dysfunction ranging from 4.5 to 19% [ 11 - 13 ]. In our longitudinal study we examined the olfactory and gustatory function in MS patients over a median time interval of 3 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the.
from the underling lateral cerebral gyri by the sulcus rhinalis. At the angle of divergence of the striae occur the olfactory trigone, whose separation from the posteriorly positioned piriform lobe is by the lateral fossa. Figure 2 shows the olfactory structures (olfactory bulb, tract and striae) on brains of each of the three species studied and/or olfactory sulcus depth in subjects with schizotypal features. The present study aimed to investigate both the OFC patterns and olfactory sulcus morphology in schizophrenia patients, schizotypal disorder patients, and healthy control subjects. On the basis of the concept of the schizophrenia spectrum  as well a The mean, right and left olfactory bulb volume and sulcus depths were used for evaluation. RESULTS The mean age was 9.9 ± 7.5 months for the infantile period, 4.5 ± 1.3 years for early childhood, 9.3 ± 1.7 years for childhood and 15.2 ± 1.7 years for adolescence. Mean, right and left OBV was found to be slightly larger in male children than.