Mantoux test positive

Mantoux Test doesn't distinguish between an active and a latent infection. If positive reaction occurs, additional tests such as sputum smear, culture and chest X-rays etc are necessary to establish a diagnosis of an active TB infection. Several factors can lead to false-positive or false-negative skin test reactions A positive Mantoux test doesn't always mean someone has TB disease; it just means that the bacteria have been in the body at some time. Also, a diagnosis of tuberculosis is never based solely on a Mantoux/PPD tuberculosis test. False-positive reactions to the tuberculosis skin test can occur because of The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) is one method of determining whether a person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Reliable administration and reading of the TST requires standardization of procedures, training, supervision, and practice The latest interpretation for Mantoux test results. According to the guidelines published by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2005, the results are re-categorized into 3 parts based on their previous or baseline outcomes: Baseline test: ≥10 mm is positive (either first or second step); 0 to 9 mm is negativ For employees who are otherwise at low risk for TB and who are tested as part of an infection control screening program at the start of employment, a reaction of 15 mm is considered positive

Ocular tb

Conditions for Positive Mantoux Test at 10mm or more A person is said to be positive when the Tuberculin skin test is 10mm or more under the following conditions: Laboratory scientist working in the lab for tuberculosis specimen A strong positive reaction to the test may result in mild pain. Contact your doctor if you experience fever, swelling in the arm, swelling of the lymph nodes in the armpits. The mantoux test is an important test for determining TB infection, but this test alone cannot confirm an active TB infection if you have a positive Mantoux test if you previously had the BCG vaccination - the Mantoux test may not be reliable in these cases as part of your TB screening if you've just moved to the UK from a country where TB is common as part of a health check when you register with a G

If you're taking immunosuppressant medications or you previously had TB, a 5 mm induration may also be interpreted as a positive test. An induration of at least 10 mm may be considered a positive.. The TST, or Mantoux test, is the commonest test used to screen for latent tuberculosis infection and depends on the intradermal injection of a specified quantity of an internationally standardized purified protein derivative (PPD) of tuberculin. Tuberculin positivity manifests as induration at the site of testing after 48 hours The test is positive if there is a bump of a certain size where the fluid was injected. This means you probably have TB germs in your body. Most people with a positive TB skin test have latent TB infection. To be sure, your doctor will examine you and give you a chest x-ray

Identify a Positive Tuberculosis (TB) Skin Test #Diagnosis

Mantoux Test : Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and

  1. Mantoux Test. Tuberculin positivity appears 3 to 9 weeks after infection and marks the development of cellular immunity and tissue hypersensitivity. From: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (Eighth Edition), 2015. Download as PDF. About this page
  2. Mantoux test positive symptoms are detected in a healthy person if the induration is greater than or equal to 15mm. The Mantoux test positive is absolute if blisters are present while interpreting. Here is an indicative reference range that is used by the healthcare professionals to interpret the results of the Mantoux test measurement for results
  3. A positive test result means you are a carrier of TB germs. You may even have a positive chest x-ray but no TB symptoms. The absence of TB symptoms means your infection is not contagious and you cannot pass it on to others. In other words, you have latent TB. It is important to note that the test cannot tell if you really have a TB infection or.
PPD skin test Information | Mount Sinai - New York

What does a positive Mantoux test indicate

A positive Mantoux test doesn't always mean someone has TB disease; it just means that the bacteria have been in the body at some time. Also, a diagnosis of tuberculosis is never based solely on a Mantoux/PPD tuberculosis test. False-positive reactions to the tuberculosis skin test can occur because of: Infection with non-tuberculous or. MANTOUX TEST (TUBERCULIN SKIN TEST) Result Positive / Negative after 48 hours Interpretation Induration measuring 10 mm or more is considered positive which shows hypersensitivity to tuberculoprotein. It indicates past or present infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis If the Mantoux test is positive (5 mm or larger, regardless of BCG history), assess for active TB; if this assessment is negative, offer them treatment for latent TB infection. If the initial Mantoux test is negative, offer an interferon‑gamma release assay after 6 weeks and repeat the Mantoux test MANTOUX TEST The mantoux test is given to : • Children aged 3 months to 6 years living at high risk environments. • Infants and children under six years of age with a history of residence or prolonged stay (more than three months) in a country of high endemic. 4. • There is a history of TB in a household contact in the last five years

The Mantoux (pronounced Man-too) skin test is used to see if your child has been infected with the germs (bacilli) that cause tuberculosis (TB). It is important to detect TB early so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. How is the test done? Results of the test The following procedure is recommended for performing the Mantoux test: 1. The preferred site of the test is the volar aspect of the forearm. the interpretation of the test. Positive Reactions. The Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) is also known as the Mantoux Test. It is a skin test to detect if you have been infected with TB bacteria. Why is it done? The TST is done Learn how the Mantoux test is done and how it works. Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy. These videos do not provide.. Mantoux Test and Tuberculosis Positive Mantoux 73 39 112 Negative Mantoux 12 344 356 Total 85 383 468 Fifty five of the 112 cases of positive Mantoux test had active tuberculosis. The specificity of Mantoux test for diagnosis of tuberculosis was therefore 49.1%. Thirty nine cases (34.8%) ha

1-what is mantoux test?2-How do you know if a TB skin test is positive?3-How do you read a Mantoux test?4-What happens if you have a positive Mantoux test?5=.. A tuberculosis skin test is also known as the Mantoux tuberculin test. This test measures your immune system's response to the bacteria that causes tuberculosis. Your results will be interpreted by your doctor a couple of days after the test De mantouxtest is een test die meestal wordt gebruikt om een besmetting met tuberculosebacteriën vast te stellen. Vergelijkbare testen zijn de Von Pirquet (de krasjes), de Heaf test (tot voor kort de standaardtest in het Verenigd Koninkrijk) en de Tine test.Bij deze methoden wordt tuberculine op een andere manier toegediend dan bij de methode die is ontwikkeld door de Fransman Charles. How to tell if a mantoux test is positive This is a curated page. Report corrections to Microbewiki. A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Mycobacterium tuberculosis Classification Higher order taxa Domain: Bacteria; Phylum: Actinobacteria; Class: Actinobacteria; Order: Actinomycetales; family: Mycobacteriaceae; Genus: Mycobacterium Species The Mycobacterium tuberculosis comple : Positive mantoux tuberculin skin test (also known as PPD or purified protein derivative) is determined by diameter of induration, not erythema, as well as risk of infection. Chat w/your provider to discuss your next step as well as options

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Abstract. As the interpretation of tuberculin skin tests is controversial in subjects who have received BCG vaccine, we administered Mantoux tests to 2588 randomly selected Saudi children aged 5-13, 1945 of whom had been vaccinated with BCG at birth and 643 were unvaccinated. Only 7.8% of the BCG-vaccinated children were Mantoux positive. had a previous positive Mantoux test What does a positive test mean?or active TB). People about to undergo organ donation. People donating an organ. People travelling to a high risk TB country. Infants and children greater than 6 months old being considered for BGC vaccine. The Mantoux test A Mantoux test is a simple and safe test. Tuberculin Skin Test (Positive Mantoux Test) Result, Reading and Interpretation #Diagnosis #Tuberculosis #LatentTB #Tuberculin #SkinTest #TST #Interpretation #Induration #Thresholds #Diameters #PPD ** GrepMed Recommended Text: Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking - https://amzn.to/2Z6LYm The Mantoux test causes a booster effect to produce a positive result in an individual who has been already exposed previously. The Mantoux test usually becomes positive 4-6 weeks after infection. If a papule does not appear after the injection, the test should be repeated on other arm as the solution has been injected too deeply

Mantoux test, also known as the tuberculin skin test, is used to check if an individual has been affected by tuberculosis (TB). TB is a deadly disease affecting mainly the people in developing countries. The disease persists in the body in various forms, such as: Pulmonary TB: where the pathogen affects the lungs One Mantoux test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis is not enough. If the reaction is positive or negative, but the doctor has good reason to believe that a person may be suffering from tuberculosis, he may be appointed as chest X-ray and / or sputum Skin Care tests should be read 48-72 hours following the injection. The cornerstone of the reading of this skin test is the presence or absence and the amount of induration (localized swelling). A negative test does not always mean that a person is free of tuberculosis. Learn To Recognize What Does a Positive TB Test Look Like I have done with mantoux test and the result came positive 25mm. But my other all body tests came normal . my Lungs CT-SCan also come normal . there were no complications but doctor said you will..

Mantoux test - Wikipedi

Evaluation of Mantoux test results. The results of the sample can be evaluated as follows: negative reaction - complete absence of infiltration (papules) and hyperemia, the presence of a stabile reaction of 0-1 mm is permissible; doubtful reaction - infiltrate (papule) of 2-4 mm size or hyperemia of any size without infiltration; positive. During a PPD test, also known as a mantoux test, a small amount of tuberculosis antigens — called tuberculin — is injected under the skin. The spot of the injection is examined between 48 and 72 hours after the injection to check for a raised area of the skin, known as an induration

  1. Mantoux test positive meaning in hindi Immunological method to test for tuberculosis Mantoux testThe Mantoux skin test consists of an intradermal injection of one-tenth of a milliliter (ml) of PPD tuberculin. The circular shape is known as a wheal response.SynonymsMantoux screening testPurposescreen for tuberculosis The Mantoux test or Mendel.
  2. istration Hospital revealed a positive test in 23.6% . In a study in Taiwan, 34.2% of the study population tested positive for the TST
  3. The TB skin test, also known as the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, is the most common way doctors diagnose tuberculosis. They'll inject a tiny amount of fluid called tuberculin just below the.
  4. The test is classified as negative (no induration or less than 5 mm induration ) or abnormal (more than 5 mm induration). Abnormal tests may take weeks to subside and can leave a mark or scar. A Mantoux test will be positive after effective BCG immunisation. Severe Mantoux test reactions (active TB
  5. A positive Mantoux and negative IGRA suggest infection with Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) and that doesn't require treatment. But wait: If the Mantoux is strongly positive (like 25-30 mm) and the IGRA is nearly positive (like 0.34 wh..
  6. Mantoux test positive result images What does a positive result mean? If you use any type of antibody test and have a positive result, you will need another (follow-up) test to confirm your results. If you test in a community testing program or take a self-test and it's positive, you should go to a health care provider to get follow-up testing
  7. I got positive mantoux test as 25x27mm and according to chest ct scan report there may be a possibility of tuberculosis but i don't have any symptoms of tuberculosis

Tuberculin Skin Test (Positive Mantoux Test) Result

Mantoux Skin Test Procedure, Results Interpretation, Risk

  1. The test for TB is called the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. It involves injecting a tiny bit of tuberculin purified protein derivative ( PPD ) into a patient's forearm. About 48 to 72 hours later, a health care professional will be able to read the PPD skin test results
  2. The Mantoux test involves injecting 0.1 mL 5TU PPD (5 tuberculin units purified protein derivative) intradermally into the flexor surface of the mid-forearm. Use either an insulin syringe or a tuberculin syringe with a 20-gauge (G) needle
  3. Mantoux test is considered positive if the induration is 10 mm or more in cases with no prior history of BCG vaccination and 15 mm or more with BCG vaccination. Results Of the total 2010 pediatric cleft lip and palate patients, 180 patients showed elevated ESR levels higher than 20 mm/1st h with positive clinical and radiographic finding.
  4. mantoux test positive 15mm. How to create an eSignature for the 2 step tb test form. Speed up your business's document workflow by creating the professional online forms and legally-binding electronic signatures. How to create an electronic signature for the Mantoux Test Report Format in the online mode

Tuberculosis (TB) - Diagnosis - NH

What Does a Positive TB Skin Test Look Like

Mantoux test is a tuberculin skin test. Although it is not standard test for diagnosis of tuberculosis; it is widely used by physicians for tuberculosis diagnosis Mantoux test and its interpretation. The tuberculin skin test is one of the few investigations dating from the 19 th century that are still widely used as an important test for diagnosing tuberculosis. Though very commonly used by physicians worldwide its interpretation always remains difficult and controversial

PPD Tuberculin Skin Testing

Mantoux Test - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

How a TB Test Is Performed. To do the positive vs negative TB test, firstly, your doctor will swab the skin on the inner side of your forearm. The doctor will then give you a shot that contains PPD under your skin's top layer. You might feel a slight sting. A small welt or bump will appear and go away after a few hours The Tuberculin Skin Test (TST), also known as a Mantoux test, is used to assess whether a person has been infected with the tuberculosis (TB) bacteria. The TST is primarily used to diagnose TB infection. This is when the TB bacteria is in the body but the person is not experiencing any symptoms suggestive of TB disease If Mantoux testing is inconclusive or positive, refer the person to a TB specialist. [2010] Recent arrivals from highly prevalent countries In people 5 - 34 offer a mantoux test followed by an IGT test if positive. In those 16 and above, an IGT test alone can be used. (refer to other sections for other groups eg immunocompromised) [new 2010 Today I have been tested positive for Covid-19. My mantoux test. Positive 439 Views In 2012. My mantoux test is positive after 48 hrs aprrox 18mm. Pls help me I not take treatment by any d Read More. About covid 377 Views Sir. The Mantoux test is a test developed to detect tuberculosis.In the year 1890, Robert Koch developed tuberculin, as a treatment for tuberculosis.The substance proved ineffective to treat the disease, today it is commonly used to detect it, though. Tuberculin is a substance based on the pathogen that causes tuberculosis. Charles Mantoux, a French physician, developed a test method, based on the.

and positive mantoux test, which might baseline information to provideclinicians and laboratory personnel on this simple test. Demographic variables of patients with positive mantoux test showed mean age of 25.5+7.89 years, and significant proportion within the age-group 21-40years(48.2) The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) or the TB blood test can be used to test for M. tuberculosis infection. Additional tests are required to confirm TB disease. The Mantoux tuberculin skin test is performed by injecting a small amount of fluid called tuberculin into the skin in the lower part of the arm More recently, there have been problems with the supply of the Mantoux test solution presenting a challenge to its continued use. Aims: To review results of Mantoux testing and determine factors associated with positive Mantoux result, i.e. tuberculin reactivity, in NHS HCWs, with a view to streamlining the TB screening process

A Mantoux test done in him was positive 15 x 10 mm. What kind of tuberculosis does this child have _? Expert Opinion : Harshal and Paresh, Where is the tb lymphadenitis_? - Cervical or elsewhere_? Abdul, for endobronchial Tb, this child does not have any signs of emphysema or foreign body Sundeep, where in the pulmonary area is the TB, is it. Reading a positive mantoux Click here for more information on Ministry of Health definition of a postive mantoux test in New Zealand (cutting points) Contact us online Call 09 574 7399 Find collection centre Find us on Faceboo The TB skin test which being determined if being positive or negative is dependent upon the volume of the lump surrounding the injection place. Based on CDC, it can be considered as a positive reaction for anybody if the lump is over 15mm, in this case, blisters are usually thought to be a sign of a positive test

TB (Tuberculosis) Skin Test (Mantoux) - Minnesota Dept

  1. A positive Mantoux test cannot be used to diagnose active tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculous therapy is generally indicated to treat active tuberculosis. Active tuberculosis is said to be present when the affected person has signs and symptoms compatible with an active disease (this will depend on the site of the body affected)
  2. of tuberculosis infection (latent) and all positive TB skin or blood tests are reportable to the local health department within one week. TB Skin Test The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) is performed by the intradermal injection of 0.1ml of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) into either the volar or dorsal surface of the forearm
  3. A positive TB skin test is when the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) indicates that a person has the tuberculosis bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis in their body based on the appearance of the skin prick test after 48 to 72 hours
  4. es if a person is infected with the tuberculosis bacteria by measuring the immune response to TB proteins in blood. It can be used instead of the Mantoux test or performed if the Mantoux test is positive. Unlike the Mantoux test, it is.
  5. Mantoux test result positive means Learning Objectives Identify the most common bacteria that can cause infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract Compare the major characteristics of specific bacterial diseases of the respiratory tract The respiratory tract can be infected by a variety of bacteria, both gram positive and gram negative

Asymptomatic children with a positive (>/=10 mm) Mantoux skin test (TST) were matched by age to 1 to 2 children with negative TST from the same clinic. We assessed risk factors for TB infection through parental interview and chart review. RESULTS: A total of 62 cases and 97 controls were enrolled. Eleven cases and 25 controls were excluded from. A. PPD (Mantoux test) B. Chest X-ray. C. QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT) D. Sputum culture. The answer is A. Patients who have received the BCG vaccine will have a false positive on a PPD (Mantoux test), which is the tuberculin skin test. The BCG vaccine is a vaccine to prevent TB A positive TB Skin test is when a Mantoux Tuberculosis is injected into the skin, which will indicate whether a person contains Tuberculosis bacteria in their body or not. Method of Getting Result Once a person has been injected with the Tuberculin, they are asked to come back after two to three days

The Mantoux skin test is regarded as positive: In immunosuppressed children (including HIV-infected children and children with severe acute malnutrition) if the transverse diameter of induration is greater than 5 mm. In all other children, whether or not they received BCG immunisation, if the transverse diameter of induration is 10 mm or more Meaning Of Positive PPD Test. If your PPD test is positive do not panic because positive Mantoux test means presence of tuberculosis bacterium, Active tuberculosis is still not confirmed. Latent Tb can be cured easily by taking one medicine for some months. If more Tests confirm active TB then it can always be cured in few months TB tests can include the Mantoux and PPD skin tests, which are less used because they can be difficult to apply properly and even to interpret. Now, doctors are using a relatively new blood test, Quantiferon TB IF (or T-Spot TB IF), which is an indirect immune system test for the presence of MTb, the agent of TB disease, as opposed to a direct.

Mantoux (positività) – Le Malattie dell'Apparato Respiratorio

TUBERCULIN SKIN TESTING • The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) is the standard method of determining whether a person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Reliable administration and reading of the TST requires standardization of procedures, training, supervision, and practice.DR.T.V.RAO MD 6. 7 The induration (raised hardened area) on a patient's arm in response to a mantoux test is positive if it is. Almost invisible. Although PPD is used to test for tuberculosis it is also called the_____ test after the physician who developed it. Mantoux test Jul 10, 2017. I was born in East Africa where I was vaccinated with the BCG vaccine at the age of 11 years. I had a positive mantoux test (2 step) at the age of 50 years. My Chest X ray was clear but the Docs were convinced I had latent TB The test involves injecting a small amount of fluid containing certain components of the TB bacterium under the skin. This will cause your immune system to recognize the injected solution as a threat, causing a skin reaction. The degree of the skin's response will determine if the results are positive or negative Home > Updates > How is Mantoux test performed?The TST is performed by injecting 0.1 ml of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) into the inner surface of the forearm.The injection should be made with a tuberculin syringe, with theneedle bevel facing upward. The TST is an intradermal injection.How do you know if your TB skin test is positive?If you have a raised, hard bump or there's.

Mantoux Screening Test - About, Preparation, Test Results

Test Overview. A tuberculin skin test (also called a Mantoux tuberculin test) is done to see if you have ever been exposed to tuberculosis (TB). The test is done by putting a small amount of TB protein (antigens) under the top layer of skin on your inner forearm.If you have ever been exposed to the TB bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), your skin will react to the antigens by developing a. Mantoux test and offer isoniazid - If the Mantoux test is positive, assess the child for active tuberculosis. If active tuberculosis is excluded, offer full treatment for latent infection - If the Mantoux test is negative (<6 mm induration), continue isoniazid for six weeks, and then repeat the Mantoux test together with an IGRA While a positive TB test might naturally conjure up alarming images, it might also reassure you to know that modern treatment options are available. First, it might be helpful to clarify that there are two different types of TB tests: the tuberculin skin reactivity test (also called the Mantoux Test) and the TB blood test

A Tb skin test is also called the Mantoux test or a Tuberculin test. It is performed not only to diagnose Tb but also for the screening of people who frequently come in contact with Tb patients such as health care workers, residents of a location where Tb is rampant or foreign-born people from countries who have a high incidence of Tb The skin test for TB, otherwise known as a Mantoux tuberculin test, can seem a bit intimidating, but it is quite straightforward. The TB skin test has two parts The standard Mantoux test in the UK consists of an intradermal injection of 2TU of Statens Serum Institute (SSI) tuberculin RT23 in 0.1ml solution for injection. The Mantoux test is used to detect latent TB infection, to detect recent infection (as shown by conversion of the Mantoux from negative to positive) and as part of the diagnosis of TB.

Latent Tuberculosis Lecture

Positive TB Skin Test Result: What Does It Mean? New

Mantoux test can be done without any risk during pregnancy and breast feeding. Positive Mantoux test can be due to the following: (a) Infection by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum και M. microti). (b) Infection by Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria. (c) Vaccination in the past with the vaccine BCG (if. The test, called the tuberculin skin test or Mantoux test, will be carried out before BCG vaccination if someone: is 6 years or over is a baby or child under 6 with a history of residence or a prolonged stay (more than 3 months) in a country with a high rate of T

Recommendations Tuberculosis Guidance NIC

our child has had a positive Mantoux test before or has been immunised for TB please let the person doing the test know. If you have any questions ask the person who is doing the test. If the test is positive then your child may need to have a chest X-ray and see a doctor or a nurse Mantoux test, also known as Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) , Tuberculin Sensitivity Test, Purified Protein Derivative test (PPD test) is a screening test to detect TB.In this test, a little amount of the PPD is injected in the arm just below the skin. If a person has been exposed to the bacteria before, the immune system will cause a reaction to the injected bacteria Mantoux test: [ man-too´ ] a tuberculin skin test in which a solution of 0.1 mL of PPD-tuberculin containing 5 tuberculin units is injected intradermally into either the anterior or posterior surface of the forearm. The test is read 48 to 72 hours after injection. The size of the area of any induration at the site of injection, in combination. Your doctor will follow up on positive results with a chest X-ray, a CT scan, and a sputum test that looks for active TB in the lungs. The PPD skin test isn't foolproof

Tuberculin Skin Test Movie 2

The mantoux test - SlideShar

The mean PPD skin test size in the whole group was 24.4 (± 10) mm. Similar findings were reported by Babu et al. who found that 96.1% of the patients had a strongly positive Mantoux test with. TB Skin Test (Mantoux Test) The TB skin test, also known as the Mantoux test, tells if your body has been exposed to the TB germ. The nurse will inject a small amount of fluid just under the skin of the left forearm. You will see a little bubble or blister appear right away at the injection site. This is normal and it will soon disappear whole blood. It is an indirect test for M. tuberculosis infection. A modern replacement to the tuberculin skin test (TST), QFT provides clinicians with an accurate, reliable and efficient tool for aiding the diagnosis of TB infection. QFT is highly specific and sensitive; a positive result is strongly predictive of true infection with M. The positive test is seen in: An active case of TB. Other types of Mycobacterial infection. The negative test is seen in: Immune incompetent chronically ill patient. Patient not exposed to TB. It is found 20% of the HIV-negative and 40% HIV-positive cases with tuberculosis

Prueba de tuberculina:La tuberculina es un extracto de unChanges in the Screening for Tuberculosis in Children

blood test (interferon gamma release assay) Preference and exceptions are outlined in the Canadian Tuberculosis Standards. Tuberculosis skin test. A tuberculin skin test (also called a Mantoux tuberculin test) is used to see if you have been exposed to tuberculosis and perhaps have latent tuberculosis infection or active tuberculosis disease positive Mantoux test result and 11 were treated afteranegativeMantouxtest result. In the latter group three had Heaftests ofgrade 2orless, twoofgrade 3, andthe remainderof grade 4. Thedecision to treat was influenced byclinical factors includingtheageofthechild andthe degree ofcontact. One hundred and eighty four cases wer As in adults, a Mantoux test with 5 TU of PPD is used for tuberculin skin tests in infants and children. Universal testing of children, including screening in school-based programs, has a low yield of positive results and a large proportion of false-positive results [ 45 , 46 ], resulting in the inefficient use of health care resources